# Simple guide to confusion matrix terminology

A confusion matrix is a table that is often used to **describe the performance of a classification model** (or "classifier") on a set of test data for which the true values are known. The confusion matrix itself is relatively simple to understand, but the related terminology can be confusing.

I wanted to create a **"quick reference guide" for confusion matrix terminology** because I couldn't find an existing resource that suited my requirements: compact in presentation, using numbers instead of arbitrary variables, and explained both in terms of formulas and sentences.

Let's start with an **example confusion matrix for a binary classifier** (though it can easily be extended to the case of more than two classes):

What can we learn from this matrix?

- There are two possible predicted classes: "yes" and "no". If we were predicting the presence of a disease, for example, "yes" would mean they have the disease, and "no" would mean they don't have the disease.
- The classifier made a total of 165 predictions (e.g., 165 patients were being tested for the presence of that disease).
- Out of those 165 cases, the classifier predicted "yes" 110 times, and "no" 55 times.
- In reality, 105 patients in the sample have the disease, and 60 patients do not.

Let's now define the most basic terms, which are whole numbers (not rates):

**true positives (TP):**These are cases in which we predicted yes (they have the disease), and they do have the disease.**true negatives (TN):**We predicted no, and they don't have the disease.**false positives (FP):**We predicted yes, but they don't actually have the disease. (Also known as a "Type I error.")**false negatives (FN):**We predicted no, but they actually do have the disease. (Also known as a "Type II error.")

I've added these terms to the confusion matrix, and also added the row and column totals:

This is a list of rates that are often computed from a confusion matrix for a binary classifier:

**Accuracy:**Overall, how often is the classifier correct?- (TP+TN)/total = (100+50)/165 = 0.91

**Misclassification Rate:**Overall, how often is it wrong?- (FP+FN)/total = (10+5)/165 = 0.09
- equivalent to 1 minus Accuracy
- also known as "Error Rate"

**True Positive Rate:**When it's actually yes, how often does it predict yes?- TP/actual yes = 100/105 = 0.95
- also known as "Sensitivity" or "Recall"

**False Positive Rate:**When it's actually no, how often does it predict yes?- FP/actual no = 10/60 = 0.17

**True Negative Rate:**When it's actually no, how often does it predict no?- TN/actual no = 50/60 = 0.83
- equivalent to 1 minus False Positive Rate
- also known as "Specificity"

**Precision:**When it predicts yes, how often is it correct?- TP/predicted yes = 100/110 = 0.91

**Prevalence:**How often does the yes condition actually occur in our sample?- actual yes/total = 105/165 = 0.64

A couple other terms are also worth mentioning:

**Null Error Rate:**This is how often you would be wrong if you always predicted the majority class. (In our example, the null error rate would be 60/165=0.36 because if you always predicted yes, you would only be wrong for the 60 "no" cases.) This can be a useful baseline metric to compare your classifier against. However, the best classifier for a particular application will sometimes have a higher error rate than the null error rate, as demonstrated by the Accuracy Paradox.**Cohen's Kappa:**This is essentially a measure of how well the classifier performed as compared to how well it would have performed simply by chance. In other words, a model will have a high Kappa score if there is a big difference between the accuracy and the null error rate. (More details about Cohen's Kappa.)**F Score:**This is a weighted average of the true positive rate (recall) and precision. (More details about the F Score.)**ROC Curve:**This is a commonly used graph that summarizes the performance of a classifier over all possible thresholds. It is generated by plotting the True Positive Rate (y-axis) against the False Positive Rate (x-axis) as you vary the threshold for assigning observations to a given class. (More details about ROC Curves.)

And finally, for those of you from the world of Bayesian statistics, here's a quick summary of these terms from Applied Predictive Modeling:

In relation to Bayesian statistics, the sensitivity and specificity are the conditional probabilities, the prevalence is the prior, and the positive/negative predicted values are the posterior probabilities.

## Want to learn more?

In my new 35-minute video, Making sense of the confusion matrix, I explain these concepts in more depth and cover more **advanced topics:**

- How to calculate precision and recall for multi-class problems
- How to analyze a 10-class confusion matrix
- How to choose the right evaluation metric for your problem
- Why accuracy is often a misleading metric